Around the world it is regarded as a universal symbol of freedom. With a handful of like-minded associates, the twenty-one-year-old Benjamin Franklin —90 formed a self-improvement club in By reading, conversing, and improving their minds, members of the Junto believed they would also improve their circumstances, their social position, and their community. As descendants succeeded the founding members, they prized the relationships and traditions handed down over generations, perhaps more than the original literary pretext of the organization.
The Philadelphia region served as an important diffusion ground for log cabins in America as Swedes, Finns, and later Germans transposed their traditional building practices to the Delaware Valley, melding old-world models with the bounty of timber but adapting to the lack of tools and skilled craftsmen. Lotteries have a long and controversial history in the Philadelphia region. Since the early eighteenth century, random drawings of numbers have funded charities and clubs, paid for roads and schools, settled estates, distributed land, and promoted various private and state-run initiatives.
The colonies that became the state of Delaware lay in the middle of the North American Atlantic coast, extending about miles north from the Atlantic Ocean along the southwestern shore of the Delaware South Bay and River to within 10 miles of Philadelphia. In the city and beyond, especially in Conshohocken, Pottstown, Phoenixville, Chester, and Camden, machining made the Delaware Valley a hub of foundries, craft shops, mills, workshops, and manufactories.
Philadelphia-based writers and publishers produced literary magazines as early as the s, and, through the nineteenth century, the city was home to a succession of influential publications that supported many local authors and contributed to the establishment of a national literary culture. Since the earliest European settlement in the seventeenth century, but especially from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries, large houses constructed by elites in the Philadelphia region provided agreeable places to live that demonstrated social status.
The Mason-Dixon Line, which settled a border dispute dating back to the founding of Philadelphia, is the southern boundary of Pennsylvania. The Philadelphia mayoralty, almost as old as the city itself, has changed markedly since its inception. When the post was created in the eighteenth century, citizens put up their own money in order to avoid having to serve. By the early s, in contrast, candidates and supportive political action committees poured millions into mayoral elections. In colonial Philadelphia, physicians and other medical practitioners contended with a difficult disease environment.
The best medical efforts of the day were often inadequate or even harmful in the face of chronic illness and epidemic disease. The health of the colonial population varied by race and region. Philadelphia offered seventeenth-century Mennonite immigrants a gateway to the New World and their first permanent settlement in what would become the United States.
Despite decades of migration to other parts of the country, Mennonites not only persisted in the city but also grew and diversified. Philadelphians have pursued significant scholarly and popular interests in meteorology, the scientific study of the atmosphere, since the eighteenth century. Pioneering individuals, including Benjamin Franklin —90 and Reuben Haines — , tracked meteorological data, and scientific societies made the practice increasingly systematic by the late nineteenth century. As the social and political center of colonial Pennsylvania, Philadelphia and the surrounding region served as a microcosm for the complex and often convoluted history of the colonial and early national militia.
The role of Philadelphia militia also illustrates the nature of militia units during the American Revolutionary War. The early Europeans who settled in what would become Montgomery County in the eighteenth century tended prosperous farms, forges, and mills. They depended on the Philadelphia market to sell their products and on its port to connect them to the wider colonial world. Mount Holly, New Jersey, established by Quakers in and known variously in its early history as Northampton and Bridgetown, became the county seat for Burlington County through an act of legislation in During the colonial period, the diversity of the region that became southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, and northern Delaware made trade and diplomacy difficult.
The many cultural, especially linguistic, barriers between various Native American and European groups required go-betweens, or intermediaries. Native Americans lived in what became southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, and northern Delaware for more than 10, years before the arrival of Europeans in the early seventeenth century. While Philadelphia has not been alone in experiencing sharp undercurrents of nativism, virulent rhetoric and periodic waves of violence aimed at the foreign-born have often wracked the city.
Founded in , the colony of New Sweden survived less than twenty years and at its peak numbered only about four hundred people, most of whom lived along the western bank of the Delaware River between what became Philadelphia and New Castle, Delaware. Founded in as the county seat of Montgomery County, Norristown sits on three hills that slope down to the Schuylkill River fifteen miles northwest of Center City Philadelphia. Its riverfront location and abundant waterpower helped the town prosper throughout the nineteenth century and much of the twentieth.
The history of nursing in the Philadelphia area is one of long and storied traditions. Men and women have often nursed their sick families and friends at home, which for millennia represented the best, safest, and most comforting site for treatment and care. Opera has played an important role in Philadelphia arts and entertainment since the mid-eighteenth century. While Philadelphians maintained scientific interest in birds between the eighteenth and twenty-first centuries, the region became an important scholarly center for ornithology by the early nineteenth century.
Primarily known for taxonomy the science of classifying organisms , ornithological study transformed in the s after the scientific community discovered a conclusive evolutionary link between birds and dinosaurs. Philadelphia has a long, distinguished history as a center of American painting. From colonial times to the nationwide deindustrialization trend starting in the s, Philadelphia played a leading role in providing American and overseas markets with quality paints and varnishes.
The region lost its national preeminence in papermaking in the late nineteenth century, but it continued to host important makers of paper and paper products. Petty Island, part of Pennsauken, New Jersey, in the Delaware River opposite the Kensington section of Philadelphia, played a significant supporting role in the economic development of the region. The term Philadelphia lawyer originated in the eighteenth century as a description of members of the Philadelphia bar, then widely considered the best trained in the American colonies and exceptionally skilled in the law and rhetoric.
Philadelphia, like many cities throughout the Atlantic world, encountered a new threat in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries from pirates who raided the numerous merchant vessels in the region.
hukusyuu.com/profile/2020-03-06/handy-ledger-software.php Several historians have labeled this era as the golden age of piracy. Urban areas in the United States have always attracted destitute persons, including immigrants and internal migrants fleeing even worse poverty and harsher conditions elsewhere. In the late s, on the heels of the American Revolution, Philadelphia emerged as a national and international leader in prison reform and the transformation of criminal justice practices. The private or independent schools in the Greater Philadelphia area came about mainly to satisfy a need felt by wealthy, white families to educate their children in a cultural and intellectual environment that would prepare them for the responsibilities befitting their gender, race, and class status.
Colonial families of Philadelphia. by: Jordan, John Woolf, , ed. Publication date: Topics: Philadelphia (Pa.) -- Genealogy. Colonial families of Philadelphia. by: Jordan, John Woolf, , ed. Publication date: Topics: genealogy. Publisher: New York.
Most have existed for at least a century. As one of the largest British ports in North America, during the eighteenth century Philadelphia held a prominent place in privateering, the practice of privately financed warships attacking enemy shipping during wartime. These vessels, either converted merchant vessels or purpose-built commerce raiders, were often investments of wealthy or enterprising merchants.
The Royal Proclamation of created an imaginary line along the Appalachian Mountains that prohibited European settlement beyond the crest of the mountains, approximately two hundred miles west of Philadelphia. It thus established the region from the eastern seaboard to the mountains as the extent of British North America.
From the moment Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans came together in the Delaware Valley, they confronted a host of health threats. For more than three centuries public transportation has helped both to shape and define the Greater Philadelphia region. The centuries-long relationship between the Philadelphia region and Puerto Rico unfolded in four interrelated areas: economic links, political channels, personal networks, and cultural exchange.
Several dynamics shaped those connections over time. Colonialism, first under Spain and later the United States, set the broad context for trade relations and government policies. The Stamp Act of , the first direct tax ever imposed by the British government on colonial Americans, inadvertently provoked a ten-year clash of wills between Britain and the colonies that led to the American Revolutionary War.
Parochial schools in the Philadelphia region share a common Catholic mission and similar patterns of growth and development. Several of these developments, such as schools for specific ethnic groups, occurred in Philadelphia, Camden, N. Parishes stand at the center of Roman Catholic religious life. Row houses were built to fit all levels of taste and budgets, from single-room bandbox plans to grand town houses. Established in , the city of Salem had early prominence and served as a port of entry, but was soon overshadowed by Philadelphia.
Since the eighteenth century, Philadelphia-area scientific societies have promoted scholarship and innovation, increased access to scientific knowledge and played an important role in the professionalization of various disciplines. Philadelphia was one of their principal destinations. Perhaps no business, industry, or institution illuminates the history of the Greater Philadelphia region from the seventeenth century to the present day more clearly than shipbuilding and shipyards. There had been efforts since the early eighteenth century to cultivate the silk worm and establish silk-making operations in the region, but they had proven unsustainable or were carried out on a small scale.
Slavery and the slave trade were central to the history of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Philadelphia as the region economically benefited from the institution and dealt with tensions created by slave trading, slave holding, and abolitionism. Originally one island, then segmented by a canal in , the islands attracted early but unsuccessful proposals for bridges between Camden and Philadelphia. The origins of smoking tobacco in the Philadelphia region can be traced to the era before European colonization and evolved from pipes and cigars to the commercialization of cigarettes beginning in the late nineteenth century.
Philadelphia-area farmers grew tobacco, local manufacturers produced cigars and cigarettes, and the N. Dancing has been popular in Philadelphia since the city was founded, in spite of religious opposition, especially from Quakers. Far from succumbing to religious criticism, social dancing gained in importance as a way for socially ambitious Philadelphians to demonstrate their gentility.
Soon after its founding, Philadelphia quickly crossed the threshold from a mere rural agglomeration into a true city, complete with an urban soundscape. Providing massive numbers of customers with food, clothing, and other goods while allowing many working people an occupational foothold in the region, vending also sparked controversies regarding taxes, regulation, public health, and uses of space. Land was the most valuable commodity in the Delaware Valley during the colonial period, and it had to be surveyed before it could be granted or transferred.
In Pennsylvania, William Penn — relied upon surveyors to measure and map his new lands. From small operations in the colonial era to elaborate social spaces in the twenty-first century, taverns in and around Philadelphia have been vital institutions, offering respite, nourishment, and camaraderie to travelers and patrons. Growing, trading in, and manufacturing tobacco were important components of the economy and society of the Delaware Valley for centuries.
Early residents raised tobacco for personal use and as a trade commodity, but in most of the region it fell out of favor by the late eighteenth century. In the Philadelphia region prior to European settlement and during the colonial period, the Lenapes and other Indians used their knowledge of the landscape to engineer the most efficient routes through forests, mountains, and often shallow, treacherous waterways.
From the arrival of Europeans in the seventeenth century through the era of the early republic, treaties were an important tool in diplomacy between native nations and colonial Pennsylvania and later the nascent federal government. Treaties followed indigenous modes of diplomacy, into which colonists introduced, and imposed, the signing of treaty documents. They were believed to improve public health, they beautified and refined city streets, parks, and other green spaces, and several were revered as living memorials to past historical events. For nearly a hundred years from to , Tun Tavern served residents and visitors of Philadelphia near the Delaware River waterfront with food, spirits, and sociability.
Vagrancy, generally defined as the act of continuous geographical movement by the poor, often has been interpreted to signify idleness, unemployment, and homelessness. Since the colonial era, it has been a driving social concern in the Mid-Atlantic region, where urban centers, including Philadelphia, attracted poor migrants seeking new economic prospects.
In the Continental Army, unable to prevent the British forces from taking Philadelphia, retreated to Valley Forge for the winter of With the Walking Purchase of , Pennsylvania officials defrauded the Delaware Indians out of a vast amount of land, perhaps over one million acres, in the Delaware and Lehigh Valleys.
Boosted by its strategic location some twenty-five miles from Philadelphia, West Chester, Pennsylvania, grew and prospered for most of its history as the county seat of Chester County. Although this political division lasted less than three decades, it represented long-standing geographical orientations of the Lenape and Munsee native inhabitants and European colonists.
Located on the Woodbury Creek in the northwestern part of Gloucester County, Woodbury formed as a result of the first Quaker family to settle the area, in Library of Congress Explore in Native Peoples to Library of Congress Explore in Printing and Publishing. The Lenape Indians controlled the Delaware Valley until after the s.
Upriver, Walloons French-speaking religious refugees from Holland establish a short-lived settlement on Burlington Island. Image credit: Library of Congress. Image credit: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. To assure access to the sea, Penn also gains control of three lower counties the later state of Delaware. William Penn arrives aboard the Welcome; by tradition, enters into a treaty with the Lenni Lenape chief Tammanend at at Shackamaxon depicted here. Image credit: Library Company of Philadelphia.
December 4, Pennsylvania Assembly meets for the first time, in Chester. May Slave ship Isabella arrives in Philadelphia carrying enslaved Africans. In , issues first Charter for Philadelphia, establishing civil government. Edward Shippen is elected mayor. By the city is the major shipbuilding center in the colonies. George Whitefield, Great Awakening evangelist from England, draws large audiences in Philadelphia, New Jersey, and lower counties in Thomas Bond conceives of Pennsylvania Hospital, first hospital in America.
Delegation including Benjamin Franklin persuades them not to enter the city. Dunn, Mary Maples and Richard S.
Dunn et al. The Papers of William Penn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Horle, Craig W. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, , Klepp, Susan E. Lemon, James T. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Lyons, Clare A. Miller, Randall M. Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth. University Park and Harrisburg, Pa.
Murphy, Andrew R. New York: Oxford University Press, Nash, Gary B. Quakers and Politics: Pennsylvania, Princeton, N. Freedom by Degrees: Emancipation in Pennsylvania and its Aftermath. Pomfret, John E. Schutt, Amy C. Soderlund, Jean R. Wacker, Peter O. New Brunswick, N. Weigley, Russell F. Philadelphia: A Year History. New York: W. Wokeck, Marianne S. University Park, Pa. Share This Page:. Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Colonial Era. A map shows the region populated by Europeans after centuries of Lenni Lenape control.
Soderlund Lenape Indians controlled the Delaware Valley until after the s.
Successive European Settlements Starting with Dutch explorers who arrived about , successive groups of European colonists built settlements on both sides of the Delaware River, sometimes adjacent to Lenape towns. Topics: Colonial Era. Abolitionism Few regions in the United States can claim an abolitionist heritage as rich as Philadelphia.
African American Migration People of African descent have migrated to Philadelphia since the seventeenth century. Almshouses Poorhouses From the late seventeenth century to the early twentieth century, almshouses offered food, shelter, clothing, and medical care to the poorest and most vulnerable, often in exchange for hard labor and forfeiture of freedom. Anatomy and Anatomy Education During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, dissection and study of human corpses became the primary method for medical students to gain intimate visual and tactile knowledge of the body and prepare to perform surgery on the living.
Astronomy University of PennsylvPhiladelphians embraced the study of celestial phenomena and bodies, such as stars, planets, and comets, from an early date.
Bakeries and Bakers Baking, one of the earliest businesses in Philadelphia, did not become a major part of the local economy until the late nineteenth century. Book Publishing and Publishers Between and , Philadelphia became the center for book printing and publishing in the United States, surpassing New York and Boston. Bookselling Bookstores have long been an important part of the economic and cultural fabric of Philadelphia.
Brickmaking and Brickmakers The city of Philadelphia was built with bricks, giving it an appearance many neighborhoods retained into the twenty-first century. Bridgeton, New Jersey Bridgeton, the governmental seat of Cumberland County, originated in the late seventeenth century as a fording place at the upper tidal reach of the Cohansey River, a tributary of the Delaware Bay. Bucks County, Pennsylvania Bucks County, one of three counties established in by William Penn , originally stretched northward along the Delaware River all the way to the Delaware Water Gap and westward past Allentown.
Cartoons and Cartoonists American cartooning began in Philadelphia. Cemeteries Cemeteries have been integral features of the Philadelphia-area landscape since the earliest European settlements of the mids. Chester, Pennsylvania Located 30 miles down the Delaware River from Philadelphia, the small but once industrially mighty city of Chester emerged in the latter part of the twentieth century as but a shadow of its former prominence in the county and the region.
Clocks and Clockmakers Clockmaking in colonial and early republican Philadelphia and its environs was considered an intellectual profession requiring great artisanal skill and scientific knowledge. Crowds Colonial and Revolution Eras Social and economic elites dominated formal politics in Pennsylvania and New Jersey during the colonial and revolutionary eras, but ordinary people, often those who were ineligible to vote, helped shape the political culture.
Deafness and the Deaf Documentation of the lives of deaf individuals in the Philadelphia region, and elsewhere, is limited. Delaware County, Pennsylvania Carved out of Chester County in with the remainder of that county lying to its southwest , Delaware County long served as a distinct but close neighbor to the City of Philadelphia. Dentistry and Dentists As dentistry slowly emerged as a profession in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, innovative dentists in Philadelphia helped to shape dental care, procedures, and tools.
Dogfighting The cruel practice of dogfighting has thrived in the shadows of the Philadelphia region for more than years. First floor bathroom only bath with shower head and first smaller double bedroom.
Second floor the master bedroom. The bus stop is on the left of the corner. But have cash money ready. The 40 stops at nearly every corner with South Street. Ask driver to warn you when arriving at 2nd Street. At getting off on South street you find 2nd street is on the other side of the street. Look for the pub The Twisted Tail. Naudain street is the small alley running along its right wall. The WiFi was not stable, which meant TV often wasn't available, especially in the evening. Very clean. Error: Please enter a valid email address. Error: Oops! An error has occurred.
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Parking Public parking is available at a location nearby reservation is not needed and charges may apply. Street parking. Internet Free! Bedroom Wardrobe or closet. Pets Pets are not allowed. Accessibility Upper floors accessible by stairs only. Outdoors Sit back and relax Patio. Languages Spoken English Spanish. What topic s do you want to know more about? Hairdryer Bathroom features shower, bathtub, etc.
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Dentistry and Dentists As dentistry slowly emerged as a profession in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, innovative dentists in Philadelphia helped to shape dental care, procedures, and tools. New York: Oxford University Press, Thank you for your time Your feedback will help us improve this feature for all of our customers Close. Valentine Hollingsworth, great-great-grandfather of Levi Hollingsworth, was a son of Henry and Catharine Hollingsworth, of Belleniskerannell, parish of Segoe, county Armagh, Ireland, and was born "about the Sixth Month in the yeare He enlisted in the War of the Revolution at New London, Connecticut, April, , as a private in the company of his brother, Captain Samuel Robbins, and reenlisted in No coffee machine.
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Reviewed August 23, Decent personalised Pizza. Date of visit: August Thank Badrinathan. View more reviews.